From its inception, the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) has been expected to generate its own revenue, and has done so through consumptive tourism. This includes the hunting and harvesting of wildlife, which is largely conducted by safari hunters in Zambia’s Game Management Areas (GMA’s) and on unfenced hunting ranches. Special licenses and hunting by Zambian nationals is also permitted in Game Management Areas. The second source of consumptive tourism, includes the harvesting of wildlife such as crocodile farming.
Nonconsumptive revenue sources includes fees for lodge leasing and park entry, bed levies, fees for commercial filming and photographic endeavors, game drives, walking safaris and water-based activities. The Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) was developed as part of the enactment of the Zambian Wildlife Act (Number 12) of 1998. It was later amended in 2001 (Number 13).
Essentially, the Zambia Wildlife Act is comprised of the following 14 parts:
The Zambia Wildlife Authority (II);
Community Resources Board (III);
National Parks (IV);
Game Management Areas (V);
Game animals and protected animals (VI);
Licences (VII); Hunting of wild animals (VIII);
Killing, wounding or molesting wild animals (IX);
Sale and transfer of wildlife animals and of meat of wildlife animals (XI);
Import and export of wild animals, meat and trophies (XII);
Enforcement provisions (XIII);
Offences, penalties and forfeitures (XIV)
The Zambian Wildlife Authority is the jurisdictional body serving to control, manage, conserve, protect and administer Zambia’s 19 National Parks, 36 Game Management Areas (GMA’s). It coordinates activities in such areas in partnership with local communities, and shares the responsibilities of management in Game Management Areas. It also issue licences and permits under this Act (sect. 5).